Materials, Tools and Power Equipment
Footings and Foundations
Siding and Roofing
Windows, Doors and Finishing Details
Root Cellar and Storm Shelter
Carports and Sheds
Excerpt from page 19
Concrete is commonly used for building foundations in the form of solid walls or piers. Occasionally, concrete or concrete blocks are used for above-ground walls as well. While poured concrete is quite expensive and concrete blocks require a good deal of labor, they are the sturdiest and most durable of building materials. Milk barns are often built of concrete blocks because they are easy to clean and stand up to regular washings with water and disinfectant.
Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand and crushed stone along with water in the proper proportions. Cement is the binding agent that holds together either concrete or mortar. Portland cement is most commonly used today and is manufactured from linestone mixed with other pulverized rock. A 1:2 1/2:3 1/2 concrete mix is a standard mix for footings and foundation walls (1 part cement, 2 1/2 parts sand and 3 1/2 parts crushed stone or gravel). Concrete comes ready-mixed in 80-pound bags that yield 2/3 of a cubic foot of concrete. You can use bags for small jobs, but when you need more than 1/2 a cubic yard (27 cubic feet equals 1 cubic yard) mix your own with a power mixer or hire a concrete truck to deliver it ready to pour.