Excerpt from page 11-12.
At first glance there does not seem to be any marked difference in the milk produced by different animals but even a casual observer will quickly discern a difference in the aroma and colour of cow's and goat's milk. The latter is white and slightly sweet and virtually odorless when collected and held under clean conditions. Experience in cheese making also shows that there are differences in the physical structure of the globules. With the fine globules in goat's milk it is important to have a light touch when handling the curd to avoid excessive losses in solids in the whey.
II - Composition
While certain factors cause variations in composition the quality of the milk may be gauged by the basic proportions in which the different components exist in milk:
- Water - 90%
- Lactose - 4-5%
- Proteinacious Compounds - 3.5-4%
- Fats - 3.5-4%
- Salt Compounds and Mineral Salts - 0.9%
The presence of mineral salts i.e. calcium sodium potassium phosphorus magnesium fluorine chlorine sulfur etc. as chlorides phosphates citrates or sulfates adds to the value of the milk. Calcium in particular plays an important role in rennet-induced curdling. Calcium levels must be protected during heating in pasteurization and during storage milk should be kept at a fairly low temperature (roughly 1°C or 34°F) since the transformation of lactose into lactic acid causes calcium salts to precipitate out resulting in problems when rennet is added.
Research has shown that these elements exist in perfect equilibrium in goat's milk which with the fineness of its globules makes this milk more digestible than other types. Furthermore living close to nature and endowed with a healthy constitution goats have an unfailing instinct in their choice of food. It is even said that they are finicky eaters. The result is a first-grade product.
As regards the composition of the milk goat breeders planning to produce milk or make cheese should be aware of certain points. The owner of a flock of goats wishing to make the most of his production will be interested in two main factors i.e. (a) fat levels and (b) proteinacious levels. Copyright permission by New England Cheesemaking Supply Company